Horses Analyzed : What’s a Mare, Yearling, Colt, Gelding, Stallion & Foal?

If you want to familiar your kids with the different types of horses, then you are at the right place. We use many special terms while describing horses, such as mares, colt, Gelding, Stallion, ponies, etc.

But what do they exactly mean? 

Once you learn the proper phrases, you will determine a horse’s gender and age.

What’s A Mare Horse?

The adult female Horse is known as A Mare horse. A mare horse must be at least three years old; else, it would be known as a filly.

However, there is confusion with age. 

Some people claim that children aged five and up are only eligible to be called a Mare Horse. As Mares are hardly ever sterilized, therefore there is no specific word for it.

Furthermore, in Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse that is more than four years old.

There are many variations here, so you need to determine which sort of Mare you are looking for.

When it comes to maintaining horses, Mares are relatively simple to male horses known as Stallions. 

As they do not possess testosterone hormone pumping around their bodies, their behavioral pattern usually is gentle. 

What’s a Mare, Yearling, Colt, Gelding, Stallion & Foal

Mares have a well-deserved reputation for being “marish,” which means grumpy or hesitant when it’s time to breed.

Although some Mares may be slightly more impulsive or cranky during heat, they are considerably less readily diverted than a stallion at any time of year. 

But their Hormonal behavior can be controlled by proper training.

To prepare Mares to be ideal for competitive purposes, they are occasionally given hormone treatments, such as the drug Regumate. 

It assists them in regulating the hormonally driven behavior of Mares. Some riders also adopt herbal treatments in such cases.

In every equestrian sport, Mares are also used as dairy animals in few cultures, particularly Central Asian nomads and previously nomadic peoples.

Fermented Mare’s milk, kumis, is known as the national drink of Kyrgyzstan.

In North America, Pregnant Mare’s urine is being stored to produce hormonal medicine Premarin, an active compound of this hormonal medication. 

What Is A Broodmare?

A broodmare is a mare that is fully exploited for breeding. The Mare wouldn’t be considered a Broodmare until she has become the mother of at least one foal. She could be a “prospect broodmare” till then, but not a true broodmare.

If you describe the meaning of Broodmare, you will quickly understand why it is called Broodmare. “Brood” denotes “Younger,” therefore it simply means “young female horse.” Young is referred to as “offspring” in this context.

As a result, a more accurate definition would be “a female horse for producing descendants.” This is absolutely what a broodmare does.

If the owner wants to breed on her, the Broodmare will likely be a perfect horse. 

She will usually be ridden, but her main goal would be to give birth to some lovely young foals.

Because these horses are widely known as Broodmare for this specific purpose.

She will usually be mated to a quality stallion to produce fine offspring that the owner may sell or can use in the future. 

What Is A Yearling Horse?

A young horse is known as Yearling Horse. It can be male or female aged between one to two years. Yearlings have the growth of a very young adolescent; they are not entirely developed physically.

However, they are in the early stages of sexual maturity; they are too young to be considered breeding stock.

Yearlings are further classified based on gender, like if they are called “colt,” which means they are male horses under the age of four, and “filly” refers to any female horse under four.

They have still not adequately developed; therefore, their bones and muscles are less robust than fully mature horses.

Once the yearling hits three, it will be classified as either a mare or a stallion. Only if the male yearling has been sterilized, in which case it will be referred to as a gelding horse.

Yearlings usually are trained on the ground; most are too immature to be ridden or handled. Yearlings are generally active and spontaneous. 

Even if they’re not fully developed, they are larger and more robust than humans and must be handled with care.

What’s A Colt Horse?

A colt is a young male horse. The primary difference between a colt and a foal is that a colt is always a male horse. This indicates that a colt horse is a foal, yet only 50% of all foals are colts.

The word “colt” refers explicitly to young male horses and should not be mistaken with the term “foal,” which refers to a horse of the other gender that is less than one year old.

A colt is described as an uncastrated male between two and four in horse racing, notably for Thoroughbreds in the United Kingdom.

When it comes to horse racing in the United Kingdom, although the terminology is slightly different. 

In the United Kingdom, a colt is a Thoroughbred that has not been sterilized. Furthermore, it must be between the ages of 2 and 4 years old.

People also describe a neutered horse under the age of four as a colt.

Colts in the forest are driven from their herds by the herd stallion between one and two. This might be an urge to avoid inbreeding.

When driven out, they generally form a bachelor herd with other young stallions, known as “rag” or “rake.”

They remain with this group until they are old enough to create their herd of mares.

What’s A Gelding Horse?

A male horse that has castrated or another animal, such as a pony, donkey, or mule, is referred to as a gelding. Castration and eradicating stallion-related hormonally driven behavior helps a male horse be peaceful and well-behaved, enabling the animal gentler, calmer, and more acceptable as an ordinary working animal.

The term “to geld” frequently refers to the procedure of castrating a horse.

Castration is commonly used to regulate a horse’s temperament, make it less violent, and enabling them to be more social and comfortable. If you realize you won’t need breeding the Horse, you may as well castrate it.

Geldings are favored over stallions for better-working needs because they are gentler, easier to control, and more supportable. As a result, many horse riders prefer geldings.

Geldings are also commonly selected over mares as some mares become unpredictable while in heat. Although, the use of Mare may be restricted during the later months of pregnancy and when caring for a tiny foal.

Gelding horses are broadly accepted as a strategy to allow more horses to live happily and safely near humans and other horses, as well as an ethical means of population control.

What’s A Stallion Horse?

A male horse that has not been castrated is referred to as a stallion. A good stallion horse may be quite precious, and they are usually among the best because the owner has opted to breed on him.

Because they are full-grown males and have not been castrated, they are generally more powerful and aggressive than other horses.

The stallion’s hormones might do training and riding more difficult. But Stallions can achieve a high level of discipline and training.

They are usually not intolerant of people but instead of other stallions. 

Keep in mind that horses are herd animals, and a stallion will attempt to control the herd of horses surrounding it.

What’s A Foal Horse?

A foal is a miniature baby horse, and it might be either a male or a female. When referring to a female foal, the term filly is usually used, and the term colt is commonly used when referring to a male foal.

A foal, despite its fast development, is too immature to be handled or driven. 

On the other hand, Foals often get fundamental horse training in the form of being trained to tolerate being led by people, a process known as halter-breaking.

What’s A Pony Horse?

A pony is a tiny and cute horse with a height of fewer than 14.2 hands (58 inches or 147 cm). That’s all there is to it.

Ponies generally have a thicker coat and are slightly more muscular than horses. They also have shorter legs, which accounts for their lack of height in comparison to horses.

Once you know the measurements, you’ll see that its legs are shorter when compared to a fully grown horse. Apart from that, a pony resembles a miniature horse.

The pony will consume the same foods and beverages as a horse. Children and the elderly can even ride it.

What Is A Jenny?

A Jenny, sometimes known as a Jennet, is a female Donkey. They can be of any age because the phrase only refers to a female donkey.

Jenny is usually calmer and less robust than Jack, discussed below.

What Is A Jack?

A male Donkey is referred to as a Jack. You get a mule when you hybrid a jack with a female horse. That’s a sterile animal, precisely like the hinny that we’ll talk about later.

A Jack is a smaller domesticated breed than horses, yet they have the same ancestors. In Australia, the Jack is known as a cuddy.

What Is A Hinny?

A Hinny is a breed between a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey, Jenny.

They are unusual and generally sterile, which means they are incapable of reproducing themselves. People will frequently create donkeys rather than hinnies since they are handier and more straightforward to work with.

What’s A Zonkey?

A Zonkey is a hybridization between a zebra and a donkey. They also have a lot of other quirky names that aren’t particularly popular.

Mostly because Zebras and Donkeys like to stick to themselves.


I hope this article will help you to understand every species of Horse in a better way. 

However, if you have any further questions, feel free to ask, or you can leave a message in the below comment section.